In 2011, the first census was carried out since 1993.
population was about 20 percent less than previously used
estimates and amounted to about 1.8 million. Of this,
approximately 72,500 lived in the municipalities in northern
Kosovo where Serbs are in the majority. These have a high
degree of self-determination and are administered from
Serbia in terms of, for example, healthcare and teaching.
The proportion of young people is larger than in other
countries in Europe and so is the family size. On average, a
household comprises close to six people.
The ethnic composition of the population has changed over
several periods over the past twenty-five years. In the
1990s, conditions deteriorated radically for Kosovo
Albanians and many moved abroad, while Serbs moved into
Kosovo. After the end of the war in 1999, some Albanians
returned, while many Kosovo Serbs moved out. The 2011 census
showed that 88 percent of the population were Kosovo
Albanians while 7 percent were Kosovo Serbs. Bosnians and
Gorans, who are Muslims who speak Slavic languages, made up
2 percent. In addition, Turks and Romans, Ashkali and Balkan
Egyptians, the latter together often referred to as RAE.
In 2015, 62 percent of the population lived in rural
areas, the second highest proportion of all European states.
In 2012, the capital Pristina had 205 100 residents, Prizren
181 800 and Gjilan 91 400.
In Kosovo, Albanian and Serbian are official languages.
Serbs, however, are mainly used in the Serbian enclaves. At
the local level Turkish, Bosnian and Romani can also be