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Since the Second World War, Luxembourg's population has increased by just over a third. The surplus of birth is minimal, and population growth is mainly through immigration surplus. About 35 percent of the residents are foreign nationals; Portuguese, Italian, French and Belgian were the largest groups. In return, almost as many Luxembourg citizens live abroad. Luxembourg is traditionally a meeting place between German and French. The average population density is 235 residents per km2 and about 90 percent of the population lives in cities. 75 percent of the population lives in the southern third of the country. Here are the largest cities: Luxembourg (119,200 residents, 2019) and Esch-sur-Alzette (35,400).

Religion and Languages of Luxembourg


According to Countryaah, official languages are French, German and Luxembourgish (Luxembourgish), the dominant spoken language, originally a German (Franconian) dialect. French is the legal language and the traditional administrative language. German dominates in cultural life (church, newspapers and literature).


Christianity was brought to Luxembourg by the Anglo-Saxon monk Willibrord in the late 600s; his grave in Echternach is a widely visited pilgrimage site. About 90% of Luxembourg's population is Roman Catholics. The Protestant church (a union of Lutherans and reformers with about 4,000 members) has German mark.

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