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Malaysia

Religion and Languages of Malaysia

According to Countryaah, the original inhabitants of the Malaya Peninsula as well as Sarawak and Sabah were indigenous communities. However, the invention of the outrigger canoe and sailing in the 2nd millennium BCE enabled people from present-day southern China to emigrate to present-day Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. These peoples brought knowledge about the use of metals and agricultural techniques - especially the cultivation of rice, which began in the first millennium AD the language of Sanskrit.

Founded by the Mekong River in the 1st century AD, the Indian-influenced kingdom, Funan, extended in the 5th century to the eastern part of the Malay Peninsula, where a number of smaller Buddhist states, which also traded with China, developed at the same time.. In the 15th century, the port city of Malaka was founded. Its rulers were the first to convert to Islam and cease paying tribute to the king of Siam - the present Thailand. Trade with the Arab Muslim traders gave Malaka considerable prosperity, and the new faith spread to the rest of present-day Malaysia and Indonesia, displacing Buddhism.. At the beginning of the 16th century, Malaka reached the pinnacle of its development, and the city's reputation was so great that it attracted the Portuguese who were in competition with the Arabs for trade on the Indian Ocean.

In 1511, the Portuguese Viceroy of India, Alfonso de Albuquerque, captured Malaka militarily and withdrew it in the Portuguese monopoly on the trade of spices from the Moluccas traded against drugs from India.as well as Chinese silk and porcelain. After being banished from Malaka, the Malay model of a "Muslim trade, fishing and maritime state" instead settled in rival rival Johor, Acheh and Brunei. In the early 17th century, the Dutch allied with the Sultan of Johor to throw the Portuguese out of Malaka. The alliance between Johor and the Dutch was signed in Batavia - today Jakarta - and in the following century was not subject to competition from other European or Asian powers.

British colonization

However, the English began to establish support points for its trade with China. First on the northern part of Borneo, and in 1786 they founded the port city of Georgetown on the island of Penang off the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. The English "free trade model" proved to be superior to the Dutch trade monopoly and Penang therefore attracted a cosmopolitan population: Malays, Sumatran, Indians and Chinese. In 1819 the British founded Singapore, but at this time the British were more interested in safety at sea than in the local trade in spices, for imports from China were paid for with opium grown in India. Yet it was difficult for English and Dutch to work side by side, and in 1824 they divided the area between them, so that Indonesia fell to the Dutch, while the English took the Malaya Peninsula.

Penang, Malaka and Singapore quickly came to play a key role in the British colony empire. This stimulated the emigration of Chinese, and to a lesser extent, Indians to these ports. The Chinese immigration was used by the English for work in the tin mines and ports, while the Malay farmers and fishermen continued in their traditional occupations. Ifht. the rapid economic development of the colonial towns slowed down the traditional small sultanates into which Malaya was divided. In 1870, the British began to enter into "protectorates" with the Sultans, and in 1895 they joined them in a federation with Kuala Lumpur as their capital. Agreements were also made with the Sultanates of Borneo: Brunei,

In the late 19th century, the British introduced the cultivation of rubber trees in Malaya with seeds that had been smuggled out of Brazil. This brought an end to the "rubber era" in the Amazon, and brought a new wave of emigrants to the Malay Peninsula. This time Tamils ​​from southern India. They worked in the rubber plantations and produced the rubber set aside for the thriving automotive industry.

Malaya was a multi-ethnic community already divided due to cultural, religious and linguistic differences, and it became even more divisive due to the existence of a colonial education system that was different for respectively. Malays, Chinese and Indians. Economically, the Malays continued to be associated with agriculture, the Chinese for tin mining, and for parts of the urban and indigenous service industries of rubber cultivation. While the Malays in the first decades of the 20th century followed the Islamic reform movements that had developed in the Middle East, the Indians solidified themselves with Gandhi's struggle in India and the Chinese were ideologically influenced by Sun Yat Sen's nationalism in China and subsequently by the Communist Party struggle. Although the majority of the Chinese sympathized with Kuomintang, already in 1927 communist cells existed among the Chinese in Malaya.

 

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