Countryaah, the Netherlands is one of the world's most densely
populated states; In 2019, the population density was 411
residents per km2. However, the regional
differences are large. In the metropolitan area of Randstad
(Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam, Utrecht), up to 1,100
residents live per km2, while the northern
provinces of Drenthe and Friesland have just under 200
residents per km2. 92 percent live in cities,
the largest of which are Amsterdam (823,800 residents,
2015), Rotterdam (625,300) and The Hague (515,000).
During the 1990s and early 1990s, the Netherlands had a
migration surplus. Subsequently, emigration was greater than
immigration until 2008, when immigration again increased. In
2016, the country had a migration surplus of 78 900 people,
which corresponds to three quarters of the country's
From the post-war period to the 1970s, Randstad grew
sharply, but since the late 1980s the tendency for the
eastern and southern areas to grow at the expense of
Randstad and the sparsely populated north.
The official language is Dutch, often but illegally
called Dutch. About 350,000 people in the province of
Friesland in the northwest also speak Frisian. Since 2001,
Frisian has been recognized as an official minority
The Netherlands was Christianized in the 600s through an
Irish, Anglo-Saxon and Frankish mission. The Reformation
reached the country especially in its Calvinistic form.
During the War of Independence, the Duke of Alba in 1567
attempted to suppress Protestant movements, which met
resistance. At the so-called Union in Utrecht in 1579,
universal religious freedom was offered, but in the parts of
the Netherlands that obeyed the general states, all Roman
Catholic worship was forbidden. To this day, the Rhine and
the Maas constitute a dividing line between predominantly
Protestant territories (in the north) and Catholic (in the
south). At the beginning of the 17th century, Protestants
were divided into milder remonstrants (see Arminianism) and
strict Calvinists. Although the latter prevailed, the
Netherlands became a center of religious tolerance, and the
Roman Catholic Church was again allowed. The Jansenist
schism in 1723 gave rise to the Old Catholic Church.
Until 1930, the Reformed Church Hervormde Kerk was a
state church. In 1999, more than 40% of the population
belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, as much as the
Protestant communities together. Both groups have religious
liberalism. Among the Catholics of the Netherlands, this has
led to strong contradictions with Rome, among other things.
in connection with the release of the "adult catechesis"
"The New Catechism" (1966); the inauguration of Rome's
faithful bishops has also caused much opposition. The Old
Catholic Church is numerically insignificant (about 0.1%).
There are a growing number of Muslims (more than
150,000), especially from the former colonies of the
Netherlands. The once large Jewish population was greatly
reduced by the persecution of World War II (to around